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Expressing the Inexpressible: Lyotard and the Differend Jacob M. Held Marquette University Department of Philosophy Coughlin Hall P.O. Box Jean-François Lyotard, who coined this term in his book Le Différend (), translated as The Differend: Phrases in Dispute (), took as his key exhibit. The Différend () as “The Postmodern Condition, Part One”. Part One: The Historical Context. The life path and careers of Jean-François.

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In a schism erupted in Socialisme ou Barbarie over Castoriadis’ new theoretical direction for the group. Log In Sign Up. Lyotard calls the change that has taken place in the status of knowledge due to the rise of the performativity criterion the mercantilization of knowledge.

Jean François Lyotard (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

For Lyotard, this fact has a deep political import, since politics claims to be based on accurate representations of reality. This is the same reason Lyotard perceives consensus to be oppressive. Firstly, it refers to the dehumanising effects of science and technology in society.

For Lyotard, then, the politics of the differend does not call for valuing different discourses equally or one recognizing another, since, of course, conflict occurs precisely where neither side finds meaning in the phrase regimen of the other.

Resolution comes at the cost of c reating differends, so one either ceases to resolve the issue or one finds differennd ria by which resolution can be seen as being more beneficial than harmful.

This was an important moment as Lyotard lost faith in the all-encompassing philosophy of Marxism, which offered, especially in the variant of the French Communist Party, a single key to history and its end. It may be the feeling of “not being lyotaed to find the words. One must, in the end, choose a self-reflective solution that does minimal violence.

Rather, lyotar is a matter of a diversity of opinions, as the non-Platonic Greeks believed, and is about nothing but this plurality of opinions. Justification is a pr oblem Lyotard must address, and one for which his philosophy does account.

Nevertheless there are rules followed within phrase regimens such that certain phrases are allowable while others are not. Another example of the differend which commentators on Lyotard often invoke is that of indigenous peoples’ claims to land rights in colonised countries. The libidinal philosophy engages with art on the level of its affective force: The Confession of Augustine was incomplete at the time of Lyotard’s death, and has been published posthumously in partial form, with working notes appended.

The lhotard intent, and situation, would be lost. One is, therefore, to find idioms through which one can phrase the wrong difterend gnified by the differend in the dominant discourse. Part of his work in The Postmodern Condition can be read as a defence of narrative knowledge from the increasing dominance of scientific knowledge.

Either one is supposed to resolve the differend, an impossible task, or one is, in fact, impotent to resolve the situation, a posit ion which seems contradictory to the motivation behind Lyotard’s project as a wh ole.

In this sense, postmodernism is the spirit of experimentation that drives modernism into ever-changing forms; it is the disruptive force that unsettles accepted rules for reception and meaning.

Minuit, The Differend: If the differend is inexpressible by definition, then whatever subsequently is expressed by a newly difverend idiom ca nnot be the original state of affairs or fact of the matter. He develops an idea of the figural as a disruptive force which works to differenf established structures in the realms of both reading and seeing.

In order for a genre to be able to adjudicate the case it must be expressible in clear la nguage, one must be able to demonstrate what occurred. Bearing witness to the differend is the primary focus of Lyotard’s postmodern politics, and art is the privileged arena in which this witnessing takes place.

Thus we will get a plurality of criteria, a plurality of judgements, a plurality of justices. Given this alternative the unfortunate result is that violence always re sults.

Jean-François Lyotard: “Le Différend,” Part One | Art History Unstuffed

This also means that there is no “correct” way of concatenating a phrase, no correct phrase regimen to be employed in following one phrase with another. The Lyotard Reader, ed. Dfiferend distinction between narrative and scientific knowledge is a crucial point in Lyotard’s theory of postmodernism, and one of the defining features of postmodernity, on his account, is the dominance of scientific knowledge over narrative knowledge.

Lyotard produced an M. In Lyotard’s postmodern philosophy the sublime is the feeling that indicates the limits of reason and representation.

University of Minnesota Press, On the one hand Lyotard criticises the dehumanising effects of the progress of science and technology that are themselves bound up with the idea of human progress, and on the other he differennd the dehumanising forces that open up our thinking to more than a simple definition of the human. These intensities and affects are, in more common terminology, feelings and desires.

See also bare life; biopower.

Jean François Lyotard

Secondly, it refers to those potentially positive forces that the idea of the human tries to repress or exclude, but which inevitably return with disruptive effects. Lyotard argues, for example, that sociology has need of a phenomenological definition of the essence of the social before it can proceed effectively as a science.

The paintings have no allusions, no modernist story to them.